What are Smart Contracts (A Complete Beginner’s Guide)

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Smart contracts represent a revolutionary advancement in blockchain technology, establishing a new paradigm of trustless, decentralized transactions.

It is becoming increasingly important to understand what Smart Contracts are, what they are used for, and their strengths and weaknesses.

In this guide, I will attempt to unpack all you need to know as a complete beginner.

Read on to learn more!

What are Smart Contracts?

Smart are self-executing agreements with the terms of the contract directly written into code. These contracts are stored and executed on a blockchain network, such as Ethereum.

Smart contracts automatically execute actions once predefined conditions are met, without the need for intermediary parties.

They ensure transparency, security, and accuracy in transactions by removing the reliance on centralized authorities.

Smart contracts have numerous applications across industries, including finance, supply chain management, real estate, and more.

Some benefits of smart contracts are efficiency, cost reduction, and increased trust in digital transactions.

How Do Smart Contracts Work?

At their core, smart contracts operate automatically with a specified action when certain conditions are fulfilled.

For example, in a smart contract for a property transaction, the condition could be the transfer of funds from the buyer to the seller.

Once the blockchain network verifies the transfer, the smart contract will automatically record the purchase and transfer property ownership to the buyer without brokers or lawyers.

This automation streamlines operations and minimizes the chances of fraud or manipulation.

Since smart contracts are stored on a decentralized blockchain, they cannot be altered or deleted by any single party, further reinforcing their reliability and security.

In this way, smart contracts have the potential to redefine transactions and contracts, making them more efficient, transparent, and trustworthy.

The smart contract automatically carries out the specified action when certain conditions are fulfilled.

Advantages of Smart Contracts

Just like any other technological innovation, smart contracts come with their own set of advantages and disadvantages.

a. Speed and Efficiency Gains

Since smart contracts automate processes and eliminate the need for intermediaries, they significantly speed up transactions.

Traditional contract processes can be time-consuming, often requiring manual paperwork and third-party involvement for enforcement.

Smart contracts streamline these operations, thereby reducing time and costs.

This efficiency is particularly beneficial in industries like real estate or finance, where transactions can take days or even weeks to finalize.

b. Accuracy and Transparency

Smart Contracts are programmed with precise conditions and outcomes. This results in fewer errors compared to manually-filled contracts.

Additionally, the use of blockchain ensures all transactions are traceable, transparent, and immutable. Every transaction is recorded and easily verifiable, leading to increased trust among parties.

c. Security

Blockchain’s decentralized nature keeps smart contracts safe from hacking and fraud. The information within them is encrypted and stored across a network of computers, making it nearly impossible for hackers to alter or steal data.

Disadvantages of Smart Contracts

Despite these advantages, smart contracts also pose certain challenges.

a. Lack of Regulation

Smart contracts are relatively new and lack clear regulations. This can pose legal challenges and uncertainty, particularly in case of disputes.

b. Technical Difficulty

Creating a smart contract requires technical expertise in blockchain technology and coding. This could be a barrier for many businesses and individuals lacking such skills.

c. Irreversibility

Once a smart contract is created, it cannot be altered. This immutability, while useful for security, could pose problems if errors or changes are needed after the contract has been deployed.

On the positive side, smart contracts provide a high level of security. They are encrypted and stored on a blockchain, making them virtually unhackable.

They also eliminate the need for a middleman, reducing costs and increasing speed significantly.

This high degree of automation also ensures greater accuracy and efficiency in executing transactions.

Types of Smart Contracts

a. Ethereum Smart Contracts

The most common type of smart contract is found on the Ethereum platform. Ethereum was built with the explicit purpose of realizing smart contracts.

Its native language, Solidity, allows programmers to write complex contracts that get compiled down to Ethereumโ€™s native machine language, “EVM bytecode”.

These contracts are capable of handling a wide array of tasks ranging from simple transactions to complex decentralized applications.

b. Bitcoin Smart Contracts

Bitcoin also supports smart contracts, although they are not as flexible as Ethereum’s.

The Bitcoin network executes “Script,” a simpler language than Solidity, which restricts the types of contracts that can be created. However, the simplicity of Script reduces potential security risks and complications.

c. NEO Smart Contracts

NEO, often dubbed the ‘Chinese Ethereum’, also supports smart contracts.

The NEO platform is unique in that it supports more common programming languages like C# and Java, lowering the barrier to entry for developers who do not want to learn a new language.

Each of these types of smart contracts comes with its own strengths and weaknesses, and the choice between them depends largely on the specific requirements of the contract in question.

Use Cases of Smart Contracts

a. Financial Services and Cryptocurrencies

Smart contracts have been revolutionary in the realm of financial services and cryptocurrencies.

They offer an automatic, decentralized, and secure way of handling financial transactions, thus eliminating the need for intermediaries.

In cryptocurrencies, smart contracts are used to facilitate, verify, and enforce the negotiation or performance of a contract.

For instance, in Initial Coin Offerings (ICOs), companies can raise funds by issuing tokens through smart contracts. These contracts ensure that the tokens are distributed to the buyers once a specified amount is received.

Moreover, smart contracts are also employed in decentralized finance (DeFi) systems to create automated lending platforms.

These platforms allow users to lend or borrow cryptocurrencies without the need for a financial institution, thereby offering higher returns and reduced fees.

b. Healthcare and Personal Data Security

In the healthcare sector, smart contracts can be used to manage and secure patient data. They provide a transparent, efficient, and secure method for storing and sharing patient records.

For instance, a smart contract could be programmed to automatically release specific patient data to authorized healthcare providers or researchers, ensuring a streamlined and secure data-sharing process.

This not only enhances patient privacy but also facilitates timely access to critical medical information, which could potentially save lives.

Moreover, smart contracts’ immutable nature ensures that personal data remains secure and unaltered, providing a robust solution to the prevalent issue of data breaches in the healthcare industry.


In conclusion, smart contracts represent a groundbreaking innovation in the realm of digital transactions, offering a high level of automation, accuracy, and security.

As they are embedded in a decentralized blockchain network, they are virtually unhackable, and their actions are irreversible.

While they are not without their challenges, such as the need for technical expertise and the lack of clear regulations, their potential benefits are immense.

They have the power to streamline processes in various fields, from finance to supply chain management, real estate transactions, and healthcare.

Justin Chia

Justin is the author of Justjooz and is a data analyst and AI expert. He is also a Nanyang Technological University (NTU) alumni, majoring in Biological Sciences.

He regularly posts AI and analytics content on LinkedIn, and writes a weekly newsletter, The Juicer, on AI, analytics, tech, and personal development.

To unwind, Justin enjoys gaming and reading.

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